GENETICS -- perhaps most important to learn and be able to handle the terminology
Gregor Mendel (1860's) - Principles of Heredity

        Karyotype and genome
        Gene - specific base sequence at specific locus on a chromosomes; codes for a specific trait
- different possible base sequences for a gene (results in different expressions)
        Genotype/Phenotype (and their ratios)

Sources of Genetic Variation
        Chromosome Segregation and Independent Assortment during Meiosis
        Crossing over of chromosomes during meiosis
        Random Fertilization

Intermediate Inheritance: Incomplete dominance and Codominance     
    Multiple alleles for genes
Polygenic Traits - additive effects of several genes at different loci on one trait (a continuation of
             the concept of epistasis)
    Environmental influences on phenotype
Sex determination and sex linked inheritance
     Autosomes and Sex chromosomes (X & Y); Holandric traits (on Y) and X-linked traits
     Homogametic/Heterogametic sexes
Sex influenced an sex limited traits