BIOLOGY 2213:  James Adams
Urinary System Structures
  -- To know for the lab practical
     KNOW epithelial linings AND layers of wall (circular muscle on
        outside; longitudinal on inside)

Kidneys -- Cortex, Medulla, Pelvis (Transitional Ep.) with calyces
    Renal Capsule, Adipose Capsule and Renal Fascia

Ureters  -- Mucosa (with Transitional Ep.), Muscularis (inner longitudinal/outer circular),
    Adventitia.  Ureters leave kidneys at hilus; enter bladder inferioposteriolaterally.

Bladder  -- Transitional Ep., on rugae
Top covered by peritoneum (why?); functionally retroperitoneal
Trigone (triangular space in floor demarcated by openings of ureters/urethra)
   Detrusor muscle (extra outer longitudinal layer; three layers total)  

Urethra -- P.C.E. (Transitional near bladder; Strat. Sq. near opening)
   Sphincters --
Internal (at bladder)/external (at abdominal wall, in BOTH sexes)
   Males:  prostatic, membranous, and spongy (penile) regions

Detail of Kidneys    
     Renal pyramids -- collections of collecting/papillary ducts (see below)
        Renal columns/lobes
    Nephrons  -- Cortical & Juxtamedullary
     Glomerular capsule -- visceral (podocytes/filtration slits) and parietal layers
                (both simp. squam., though podocytes highly modified)
        Proximal Convoluted Tubules (PCT) -- Simp. Cub. with microvilli
        Nephron Loop (of Henle) -- Ascending/Descending Limbs (Arms)
            Thick (simp. cub.) and Thin (simp. squam.) Segments
        Distal Convoluted Tubules (DCT) -- Simp. Cub.
        Collecting/Papillary Ducts -- Simp. Cub.

Circulatory Structures
    Renal Arteries/Veins
    Interlobar Arteries/Veins
    Arcuate Arteries/Veins (mark Cortex-Medulla boundary)
    Afferent/Efferent Arterioles
    Glomeruli (plural of glomerulus) -- surrounded by glomerular capsules
    Peritubular Capillaries -- surrounding rest of nephron for reabsorption

Renal Corpuscle = Glomerular Capsule + contained glomerulus
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
        Juxtaglomerular Cells of the Afferent Arteriole + Macula Densa Cells of the DCT