BIOLOGY 2213: James Adams
Urinary System Structures -- To know for the lab practical
KNOW epithelial linings AND layers of wall (circular muscle on
outside; longitudinal on inside)
Kidneys -- Cortex, Medulla, Pelvis (Transitional Ep.) with
Renal Capsule, Adipose Capsule and Renal Fascia
Ureters -- Mucosa
(with Transitional Ep.), Muscularis (inner longitudinal/outer circular),
Adventitia. Ureters leave kidneys at hilus; enter bladder inferioposteriolaterally.
Transitional Ep., on rugae
Top covered by peritoneum (why?); functionally retroperitoneal
Trigone (triangular space in floor demarcated by openings of ureters/urethra)
Detrusor muscle (extra outer longitudinal layer; three layers total)
Urethra -- P.C.E.
(Transitional near bladder; Strat. Sq. near opening)
Sphincters -- Internal (at bladder)/external (at abdominal wall, in BOTH sexes)
Males: prostatic, membranous, and spongy (penile) regions
Detail of Kidneys
Renal pyramids -- collections of collecting/papillary ducts (see below)
Nephrons -- Cortical & Juxtamedullary
Glomerular capsule -- visceral (podocytes/filtration slits) and parietal layers
(both simp. squam., though podocytes highly modified)
Proximal Convoluted Tubules (PCT) -- Simp. Cub. with microvilli
Nephron Loop (of Henle) -- Ascending/Descending Limbs (Arms)
Thick (simp. cub.) and Thin (simp. squam.) Segments
Distal Convoluted Tubules (DCT) -- Simp. Cub.
Collecting/Papillary Ducts -- Simp. Cub.
Arcuate Arteries/Veins (mark Cortex-Medulla boundary)
Glomeruli (plural of glomerulus) -- surrounded by glomerular capsules
Peritubular Capillaries -- surrounding rest of nephron for reabsorption
Renal Corpuscle = Glomerular Capsule + contained glomerulus
Juxtaglomerular Cells of the Afferent Arteriole + Macula Densa Cells of the DCT