Biology 2213 -- Human Anatomy and Physiology II                            Dr. Adams

Reproductive System Structures
 -- To know for the lab practical    

I. Male Reproductive System
    A. Scrotum and testes
         Dartos (in scrotal wall) and Cremaster (wrapped within spermatic cord) muscles
            Testicular arteries, and testicular veins (pampiniform plexus, within spermatic cord)
            Inguinal Canal
         Tunica vaginalis and albuginea (albuginea has septa that divide testis into lobules)
     Testis internal structures: (see Developmental Structures: Cells, below)
         Ducts of testis -- Seminiferous tubules, Tubulus rectus, Rete testis
         Interstitial cells
            Sustentocytes (in seminiferous tubules of males)
            Spermatogonia, Primary/Secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, sperm
B. Male Duct System
     Epididymis (head/tail), Ductus (vas) deferens, Ejaculatory duct (joins urethra in prostate)
     Urethra (prostatic, membranous, penile [spongy])
C. Accessory glands
     Seminal vesicles, Prostate gland, Bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
D. Penis
     Root, Shaft, Glans, Foreskin (Prepuce)
     Corpus spongiosum (around urethra; swollen at base [Bulb] and forms glans)
     Corpora cavernosa (flared at base into a flange [Crus; plural crura])
        Bulbospongiosus muscles

II. Female Reproductive System
A. Ovaries/Ovarian Cycle
     Tunica albuginea
     Ovarian/Suspensory ligaments and Mesovarium (ovarian supports; parts of Broad
             ligament [peritoneal fold])
     Primordial, Primary, Secondary, "Mature" (Vesicular or Graafian) follicles, with
            Follicle/Granulosal cells, Antrum, Zona pellucida, Corona radiata, Theca folliculi, 
            Atretic follicles
        Oogonia, Primary/Secondary oocytes, ova
     Corpus luteum/albicans
B. Female Duct System
     Uterine (Fallopian) tubes (also called Oviducts), with Fimbriae, Isthmus
     Mesosalpinx (support for tube; part of broad ligament)
C. Uterus
     Fundus, Body, Isthmus, Cervix (with Glands)
     Mesometrium, Round Ligament (supports for uterus)
     Wall: Perimetrium, Myometrium, Endometrium
     Endometrial specializations:
         Stratum Functionalis, Stratum basalis, Spiral arteries; also know Embryonic/ 
                Placental membranes (see below)   

    D. Vagina (copulatory/birth canal)
     Adventitia, Muscularis, Mucosa (with rugae)
     Vaginal orifice/Hymen
     Vaginal Fornices around cervix (singular -- fornix)
E. External Genitalia -- Vulvae (Pudendum)
     Mons pubis
     Labia majora/minora, covering Vestibule (with Vestibular glands)
     Clitoris (with prepuce)

III. Developmental Structures
        Know what the following mean: Conceptus, Embryo, Fetus
A. Cells
        Sustentocytes (in seminiferous tubules of males)
     Spermatogonia/Oogonia, Primary/Secondary Spermatocytes/Oocytes, Spermatids 
            and Spermatozoa/Ova, Zygote
B. Early development
     Cleavage, Morula, Blastocyst, Trophoblast (Cyto-, Syncytio-), Inner Cell Mass,
            Blastodisc, Gastrula (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm), Neurula with neural
            groove/neural tube, notochord
C. Embryonic/Placental Membranes
     Chorion (with Chorionic Villi), Amnion, Yolk Sac;  Decidua Basalis/Capsularis