SPECIAL SENSE Structures -- To Know

The following is the list of structures you need to know for the lab practical. As much as possible, 
I have followed the order of presentation in the book.

        Vision: The Eye
                Accessory Structures: Eyebrow, palpebrae (eyelashes, canthi, caruncle, tarsal plates
                        tarsal glands), conjunctiva (ocular and palpebral), lacrimal apparatus (gland,
                        puncta, lacrimal sac, etc.)
                Eyeball:  poles (anterior, posterior), pupil
                                1. Fibrous -- Sclera (continuous with epineurium of optic nerve/dura mater 
                                        of the brain), cornea
                                2. Vascular (Uvea) -- choroid, ciliary body with suspensory ligaments, iris
                                3. Sensory (Retina) -- pigmented layer, photoreceptors (cones and rods 
                                        [bipolar neurons]), bipolar cells, ganglions cells (axons are optic nerve);  
                                        retina with optic disc, macula lutea, fovea centralis
                        Posterior segment with vitreous humor, anterior segment with aqueous humor
                        Scleral Venous Sinus (Canal of Schlemm)

Hearing and Balance: The Ear
        Outer Ear: auricle (pinna), external auditory canal (meatus), tympanic membrane,
                Ceruminous glands
        Middle Ear: pharyngotympanic (auditory, Eustachian) tube; ossicles: malleus (hammer), 
            incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup); stapedius/tensor tympani muscles; round/oval windows
        Inner Ear: Bony (osseous) labyrinth, membranous labyrinth; perilymph, endolymph; 
            vestibule/semicircular canals (vestibular apparatus for balance), cochlea (hearing)   
                Cochlea: Modiolus, cochlear duct (filled with endolymph in scala media), scala 
                    vestibuli/tympani (filled with perilymph and abutting oval/round windows, 
                    respectively); scala media containing spiral organ of Corti, with vestibular,
                    tectorial and basilar membranes, the last which contains "tuned" fibers and
                    supports hair cells
                Vestibule: utricle and saccule, each with a macula (hair cells, otolithic membrane)
                Semicircular canals: ampulla, with crista ampullaris and cupula

Vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve number VIII): vestibular and cochlear branches