Chemistry Study Sheet Answers:

1.  Matter:  Anything that takes up space and has mass.
                    Solid, liquid, gas.

2.  Atom:  Smallest particle (of an element) that has the properties of a specific element.
     Element:  Matter made up of atoms with a unique number of protons; in other words,
                    the number of protons (the ATOMIC number) defines the element.

3.  Molecule:  any two (or more) atoms bound together.
     Compound:  any two (or more) atoms of different elements bound together.

4.  C, H, O, N.

5.  C
6.  N, C, and O
7.  I
8.  Fe
9.  Ca
10.  O

11.  Ion:  atom or molecule with a charge; cations are positively charged.

12.  protons; neutrons

13.  negatively; equal to

14.  19; 19; 19

15.  Isotopes: atoms of same element with different atomic masses (different numbers of neutrons).
        8; 6

16.  39

17. R
18. S
19. E
20. D

21. C;  glucose, fats, and protein

22.  Solvent; in joints

23.  B
24.  A
25.  C

26.  A (4)

27.  B

28.  100; more

29.  weak

30.  removed (dehydration synthesis); 1

31.  added (hydrolysis); 2

32.  Differences between     RNA      &       DNA
            5-C sugar               ribose               deoxyribose
            nitrogenous bases    uracil                thymine     
            strands                    one                   two (double helix)
                (of nucleotides)

33.  C
34.  D
35.  B
36.  A
37.  A

38.  T
39.  T

40.  Polarity:  charge difference from one end (side) to the other (in molecules, due to differences in electronegativity
       Electronegativity:  An atom's ability to attract electrons; an atom that attracts electrons strongly has a high electronegativity.
       Valence:  Outer shell of electrons around the nucleus of an atom.
       Ions have a net charge; polar molecules have an uneven distribution of charge (a positive "end" and a negative "end") but
            not a net charge (necessarily).

41.   Lots of examples of all of these bonds will be given in class and are discussed in the text.
        Covalent bond:  shared pair of electrons
                Non-polar:  electrons are shared equally (due to equal electronegativities)
                Polar:  electrons shared unequally (due to different electronegativities)
        Ionic:  bond between ions, due to the opposite charges on the ions (no sharing of electrons)
        Hydrogen bonds:  weaker than the others, this is a charge attraction between a (positively charged end of a) hydrogen in a polar bond in one molecule, and a negatively charged end of a bond in another.  Found between water molecules, within proteins, within nucleic acids, etc.

42.  Remember:  "Like dissolves like" (polar dissolves polar, non-polar dissolves non-polar)
        Hydrophilic:  likes water (typically means polar or charged when it comes to molecules).
        Hydrophobic:  doesn't "like" water (typically means non-polar [likes lipids])

43.  See questions 30 and 31.
        Basically, almost all types of organic molecules can be assembled by dehydration synthesis, and broken down by hydrolysis.

44.  Self explanatory.

For Biology 2212 (Anatomy and Physiology) only:
45.  Solution:  Homogeneous mixture that doesn't settle out; in the body, plasma, saliva, sweat, urine would be examples.
                            These tend to be clear (salt water and air would be other examples).
                Know the concept of: Solvents (the dissolver) and Solutes (what is dissolved)
       Colloids:  Heterogeneous mixture that doesn't settle out; in the body, cytosol (cytoplasm) and the matrix of many C.T.'s are examples.
                    Sol -- liquid colloid
                    Gel -- (semi)solid colloid
        Suspension:  Heterogeneous mixture that will settle (if not moved); whole blood is an example.