Ecology Biology 3500
                                                                                                                Dr. Adams

Chapter 7: Energy and Nutrient Relations
     Trophic levels (we'll discuss this in much greater detail later):  see page 150
        Autotrophs: organisms that can do either of the following in order to capture energy
            and produce organic molecules -- producers. 
          Photosynthesis:  Utilizes CO2 (from air) and H2O (from ground) to make organics
            using light energy
          Chemosynthesis:  Utilizes CO2 (from surrounding water) and H2S (from vents as source
            of energy, along with heat) to make organics; some bacteria in soil can use ammonium
            as an energy source (which also gets them nitrogen) (see page 155)
both photosynthetic and chemosynthetic; plants photosynthetic.
        Heterotrophs:  must consume organics produced by autotrophs in order to get not
            only the necessary molecules for growth but energy as well -- consumers.
            Includes some prokaryotes, a few plants, and all animals and fungi.

Photosynthesis:  6 CO2  + 12 H2O (with light in presence of chlorophyll)  
        C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O.  Involves the light dependent reactions (to capture light
        energy in molecules (ATP & NADPH + H+)), and then the carbon fixation reactions (the
        Calvin Cycle), with the enzyme Rubisco, to grab CO2 from the air, and, using the energy
        from the light dependent reactions, make glucose. First molecule formed in the Calvin
        Cycle is a 3 carbon molecule.  PS involving just these sets of reactions is C3 PS.
    Utilizes light in the human visible spectrum (400 - 700 nm), mostly in the blue and red ends
        this represents the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation)
    The intensity and quality of the light available for photosynthesis changes with latitude,
        seasons, weather, time of day, and depth within a biome (think of the floor of a tropical
        rain forest; for aquatic systems, light changes with depth)
    Alternatives to regular C3 photosynthesis:  see page 152 and handout
        C4 and CAM photosynthesis:  both use an extra enzyme (PEPC) and extra steps to shuttle
            CO2 to the "normal" Calvin Cycle reactions of the C3 pathway, which is used by ALL
            plants to make glucose.  The only difference is that the C4 pathway fixes CO2 during the
            day and the malic acid (C4 acid) formed is immediately shuttled to the bundle sheath cells
            around the veins where CO is refixed by Rubisco (the enzyme starting the Calvin Cycle)
            and glucose is made.  CAM plants open stomates at night and fix CO2 into malic acid,
            which has to be stored until morning when the Rubisco enzyme (which is light activated)
            can then work.  This has to be done because Rubisco happens to be an oxygenase as well
            as a carboxylase.  In a nutshell, Rubisco "wastes time" fixing O2 in hotter, drier environments
            (photorespiration; no organic molecule production), the very environment in which PS needs
            to be MORE efficient to reduce water loss through open stomates.  PEPC, which very effici-
            ently fixes only CO2 and is not light activated, is thus the perfect "fixit", though it requires more

Heterotrophy -- Herbivory, carnivory, detritivory
    Chemical requirements for organisms:  (see page 156, 157)
      ≥93 % of the body of all organisms consists of C, O, H, N, P (and S)
            Plants most variable, but contain low N and P; leaves are about 2% N and 0.3% P.  Inverts,
            bacteria, and fungi usually 5-10% N and 1% P.  Verts even higher for both as well as Ca.
       High C:N ratios in plants (@25:1) indicate high carbohydrate (cellulose)/lower protein content
            than other organisms (heterotrophs) with a lower C:N ratio, between 5:1 to 10:1 for fungi,
            bacteria, and animals.  The C:N ratio is particularly high, up to 300:1 for woody plants (WHY?)
      Other minerals are essential nutrients, however, for both plants and animals (some are
        unique to plants [B] and some to certain animals [I]).  Plants obtain minerals with water from
        ground, animals obtain minerals with their food and drink.
    Herbivores:  must deal with indigestible cellulose and lignin, and possibly many different secondary
        plant compounds -- compounds for defense (toxins) and digestion-reduction (eg. tannins).  Also,
        must deal with the N and P poor quality of plant food; do so by typically eating parts of the plant
        that are richer in proteins (LIKE?), and consuming large amounts.  Many plants may have evolved
        physical protection (thorns, hairs, sticky compounds) as well.  Usually, however, there are at least
        a few herbivores that have overcome, and in the case of chemical protection, taken advantage of
        protective mechanisms of plants.  There are higher levels of secondary compounds in tropical
        plants, yet herbivores remove more leaf mass (by %) than in temperate forests.  What does this
        Tropical seaweeds are similar in that they also have more chemical defense than temperate ones.
            Giraffes tongue
            Sequestration and utilization of chemicals:  leading to Mullerian and Batesian mimicry*
                complexes (see below)
    Detritivores: feed on decaying plant (and fungal/animal) material
        Play a vital role in (re)cycling of nutrients; since feed largely are dead plant material, are
            faced with similar problems as herbivores.  Indeed, nitrogen content of food is about half
            of what is found in living leaves.  Fungi in the soil may help with sequestering nitrogen
            (we'll talk about this more later).
    Carnivores:  feed on nutritionally rich prey, with complete proteins. Since prey are such
        desirable pieces of food, most have defensive mechanisms for avoiding predation, much
        like the plants have evolved defenses against herbivores.  Understand that the predators
        themselves have been the agents of selection for defense in prey.
            Crypsis (eg. salt and pepper moths), chemical repellants, aposematism, Batesian and
                Mullerian mimicry*, physical defenses (goo, stingers, spines, hairs, shells, etc.), and behaviors
                (fast flight, noise, playing dead, grouping together, etc.)
        Movement of prey items means that predators must expend more energy, and will be less
            successful than herbivores at finding prey, and, when found, even less successful at
            capturing the prey (1% successful capture rate by bald-faced hornets, for example.)
        Typically, most predators use, not surprisingly, size-selective predation.
                This leads us to the concept of . . .

 Food density and functional response by animals (section 7.4)
        Three types of responses (all which can reach a maximum possible feeding rate):
            Type 1: feeding increases in direct proportion to increasing food density (only occurs if
                 food requires little to virtually no processing time)
            Type 2: feeding rate increases quickly, then slows as more and more food available; typical
                in animals which require some time to find and then handle (process) food.  This curve
                is easily the most representative of a large number of animals.
            Type 3:  uncommon; might expect this as predator is forming a search image for "rare" food
    Since energy expenditure in capture must in turn be balanced by energy gained from food, very
        careful decisions must be made when selecting and chasing potential prey.  After all, energy
        (and nutrients) once obtained, must be allocated to parts of the body in which the energy/
        nutrients are needed.  Optimal foraging theory attempts to predict what consumers will eat,
        based on their needs to maximize (assimilation) or minimize (water loss) some aspect of the

    Optimal foraging (section 7.5)
        If a heterotroph is trying to optimize energy intake within a given amount of time, then the
            consumer should technically take into account the following:     
                food availability (number of prey items), food nutritional quality, handling time, encounter
                    rates, abundance and nutritional value of different food types available, and more       
           (see equations, page 166; note complexity of equations; you will NOT have to know them)
        Bluegill Sunfish example

Chapter 8:  Social Relations
                    Behavioral Ecology -- Sociobiology
    Mate Choice:  The one fundamental social interaction that all sexually reproducing organisms must
        exhibit.  Realize that each mate's goals are not necessarily the same (though the overall goal,
        increasing fitness, is the same).  Female's typically produce fewer, larger gametes, while males
        produce many, smaller gametes (sperm are cheap!).  So, female success is generally considered
        to be limited by access to resources*, while male success is generally limited by access to females;
        this typically makes the female the CHOOSY sex, and the male the COMPETITIVE sex.
Sexual Selection -- we tend to see, due to the dichotomy indicated above, males attempting to
        "convince" females, while females being highly selective in choosing a mate.
            As such, we see the development of secondary sexual characteristics in one/both sexes,
        leading to sexual dimorphism in many species.
    Two distinctive selective processes at work:
        1.  intrasexual selection -- typified by competition within one sex for mates
        2.  intersexual selection -- typified by one sex selecting mates based on certain characteristics of
            individuals of the opposite sex.  This is mate choice, and can lead to the development of
            remarkable structures (such as the male Peacock's tail).
      I. Guppies
        1.  Intersexual selection in Guppies (Endler)-- in no to low predatory environments, over time
            colorful males increase in the population, indicating that color is beneficial in mating, but in high
            predatory environments colorful males reduce in number (why?).  In addition, Endler carried
            out a transplant experiment in a natural situation where the end results again were as in the pond
            experiments indicated above.  Shows that the same trait can have conflicting affects on fitness
            depending on what factors are present in the ecosystem. 
        2.  Intrasexual selection in Guppies (Kodric-Brown) -- females clearly choose the males with the
            showy, colorful spots, but when put together with two males (one showy, one not) females do
            NOT always mate with the showy individual.  Males are aggressive towards one another, and
            colorful individuals are NOT always DOMINANT individuals.  Dominant individuals sired
            more offspring, whether attractive or not.
      II.  Scorpionflies (see Fig. 8.9 - 8.11) -- Resource provisioning*
        Male Scorpionflies offer nuptial food gifts to potential mates; typically they find their "prey" dead
            (though some species are active predators).  Some species even risk death by stealing food
            from spider webs.  Males will get "gift", call female with pheromone, and wait for arrival of
            female.  Males with largest gifts have remarkable mating success, whereas those with smaller
            gifts, and particularly no gifts have (much) reduced mating success.  Females choosing males
            with larger gifts get both the benefit of not having to find as much food themselves as well as a
            significant nutrient head start in laying a larger numbers of eggs.  Who can get the largest
            "gifts"?  No surprise.  Largest scorpionflies out compete smaller males for food gifts.
                So, are both intrasexual and intersexual selection going on here?
      III.  Wild Radish
        Pollinators include bees, syrphid flies, and butterflies.  Pollinators arrive at a flower carrying
            pollen from several different males and, on average, have seven different mates. Flowers are
            dioecious, but are self-incompatible (pollen from own stamen cannot grow pollen tube on
            own pistil).  So, must outcross.  Is there non-random mating, and therefore uneven mating
            success in plants?
                Marshall clearly showed that all pollen donors are not "created equal".  Some sired more
            seeds total, some sired seeds of greater weight, etc.  Is sexual selection going on?  Certainly
            SOME kind of selection is potentially going on, where certain fathers (pollen) clearly have
            an advantage over others.

In SOCIAL organisms, chances for mating are often reduced even further than by direct one on one
    competition.  In such organisms exhibiting social structure, it is often just a few individuals that get
    to mate in a given time period.  (We will save a larger discussion of sociality until we discuss
    population ecology).