Resource Partitioning by Forest Warblers -- Macarthur

These warblers use different parts of the trees for foraging, and as such five species can coexist in one location.

Character Displacement


When one of the warbler species is not present, another species will fill the niche


EPIPHYTIC GROWTH in Tropical Forests  -- Nadkarni

near Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica

       This is a photo showing many bromeliads growing high in the tree tops in this Costa Rican Forest.

        Near Xilitla, San Luis Potos, Mexico -- the photo below shows one very large bromeliad on the side of a tree

Pollen Profiles  --  Davis

From the sediment in a lake in the southern Appalachians, pollen from 12,000 years ago shows mostly Spruce, by 8000 years ago we see Beech pollen and by 2000 years ago we see Chestnut pollen joining the other two, with Spruce and Beech becoming less common.  This shows the progression of the trees northward after the last ice age.